Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2018, Page: 7-13
The Green Leafy Vegetable Psophocarpus Scandens as Putative Source of Nutraceuticals in Sickle Cell Disease: The Scientific-Based Evidences
Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Department of Biology, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo; Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Gbadolite, Gbadolite, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Nathanael Nieto Kongobi, Section of Pure Science, Medical Techniques High School of Yakoma, Yakoma, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Clément Liyongo Inkoto, Department of Biology, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Gédeon Ngiala Bongo, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Gbadolite, Gbadolite, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Colette Masengo Ashande, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Gbadolite, Gbadolite, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Clément Mutunda Mbadiko, Department of Biology, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Clarisse Mawi Falanga, Department of Biology, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Benjamin Zoawe Gbolo, Department of Biology, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo; Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Gbadolite, Gbadolite, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana, Department of Chemistry, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Received: Oct. 13, 2018;       Accepted: Oct. 26, 2018;       Published: Nov. 16, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.pst.20180202.11      View  407      Downloads  32
Abstract
In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), medicinal plants represent the main product for both urban and rural populations for their health care needs due to the high costs of conventional medicine. These plant species contain bioactive compounds also called phytochemicals that are capable of modulating metabolic processes and resulting in the promotion of better health. Some of these plants act therefore as functional foods and could serve as sources of nutraceuticals. Psophocarpus scandens, an unconventional green leafy vegetable, is well known to have antioxidant activity which is one of the modes of action of Sickle cell disease (SCD) drugs. To justify this study, it was hypothesized that P. scandens possess antisickling properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antisickling activity of organic acids rich extract from P. scandens using in vitro biological experiments (Emmel, Itano and hemolysis tests). The results revealed that P. scadens have antisickling properties in vitro (normalization rate: 80%). This bioactivity is expressed as the re-appearance of the normal and classical biconcave form of red blood cells (RBCs: from 0.00±0.00 to 3.55±0.28 µm) in hypoxic conditions by reducing the perimeter of sickle RBCs (from 35.26±1.21 to 19.80±1.15 µm) and increasing their surface (from 21.41±1.84 to 34.10±1.76 µm2) (p<0.05). The bioactivity displayed could be due to triterpenoic acids which are able to reduce both the rate of hemolysis (hemolysis inhibition ˃50%) and the aggregation of deoxy-Hb S (hemoglobin S polymerization inhibition rate ˃80%) as experimentally demonstrated. Literature search revealed that this green leafy vegetable contains polyphenolic compounds (glucosylated flavonoids and phenolic acids) with antioxidant properties and all essential amino-acids. Thus, the daily consumption of P. scandens fortified with the leaves powder of Moringa oleirera could considerably reduce in vivo oxidative stress and hemolysis associated with clinical manifestation of SCD. Based on current knowledge this is a first report on the antisickling activity of P. scandens. It is desirable that the bio-guided fractionation of organic acids extract could be carried out in order to isolate and elucidate the structure of bioactive pure compound(s).
Keywords
Sickle Cell Disease, Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, Psophocarpus Scandens, Evidences-Based Medicine
To cite this article
Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Nathanael Nieto Kongobi, Clément Liyongo Inkoto, Gédeon Ngiala Bongo, Colette Masengo Ashande, Clément Mutunda Mbadiko, Clarisse Mawi Falanga, Benjamin Zoawe Gbolo, Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana, The Green Leafy Vegetable Psophocarpus Scandens as Putative Source of Nutraceuticals in Sickle Cell Disease: The Scientific-Based Evidences, Pharmaceutical Science and Technology. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2018, pp. 7-13. doi: 10.11648/j.pst.20180202.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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